Emergency Management organizations face tremendous difficulties meeting greater demands with fewer resources . This is were GIS plays a major role in helping managing the resource effectively and efficiently.
In dealing with these extreme events, many of the critical problems that arise are inherently spatial. Whether an analyst is assessing the potential impact of a hazard, or an emergency manager is identifying the best evacuation routes during a disaster, or a civil engineer is planning a rebuilding effort following a disaster, all of these individuals face tasks with a strong spatial component. For this reason, geographical space is a valuable framework for reasoning about many problems that arise in the context of emergency management. GIS were designed to support geographical inquiry and, ultimately, spatial decision making.
The value of GIS in emergency management arises directly from the benefits of integrating a technology designed to support spatial decision making into a field with a strong need to address numerous critical spatial decisions. For this reason, new applications of GIS in emergency management have ﬂourished in recent years along with an interest in furthering this trend.
It is widely recognized that the application of geographical information systems (GIS) increases the capability and effectiveness of the emergency services to respond in an emergency situation. Modern emergency services, both in planning and operational support, rely on accurate and timely information about the location of incidents, crimes or assets, often from dispersed sources of data. The ability to access and process spatial information quickly, from multiple sources, and to give visual feedback, is crucial to planning and operational effectiveness.
GIS can be utilised for emergency management solutions at various levels such as :
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